Identifying challenges and effective indicators in entrepreneurial attitudes in the content of elementary textbooks (qualitative study)

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD student, Department of educational Sciences, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran (Corresponding Author)

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran


The aim of this study was to identify the challenges and effective indicators in entrepreneurial attitudes in the content of elementary textbooks. The research method is applied in terms of purpose and based on how to collect qualitative data based on semi-structured interviews. The statistical population was the selection of interviewees using snowball-type purposive sampling method, which was stopped in the eleventh interview due to the repetitive text of the interviews and consensus. Based on the results of the interviews and the extraction of challenges, which consisted of 46 two concepts or items, 8 challenges in the content of science and Persian textbooks for first to third grades of elementary school were identified. Also, in the index extraction section, which consisted of 43 concepts or items, 7 effective indicators were identified in the content of science and Persian textbooks for the first to third grades of elementary school. The results showed that the challenges of lack of space and educational context, theorizing of concepts, neglect of entrepreneurship, lack of education, optional activities, lack of evaluation, lack of support from officials and lack of skills of teachers as the most important challenges of not developing attitudes, respectively. Entrepreneurship was introduced in the textbooks of the course. Also, indicators of creating and creating opportunities, self-efficacy, desire and confidence in success, talent identification, participation and interaction, operationalization and acquisition of skills, flexibility of officials were selected as the most important factors in developing entrepreneurial attitudes in elementary school textbook content.


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